Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Tradition in modern architecture - Free Essay Example

Introduction Architecture can be described as, a profession or rather a discipline that deals with designing of buildings, other respective artificial constructions, open areas and communities while regarding the aesthetic effect. It generally includes supervising building work and remodeling, selection of design and decorations. Architecture started being practiced since time immemorial in ancient states like in ancient Egypt including other numerous others. Architecture is believed to have been born out curiosity by man to want decent dwellings. The pioneers of architecture had diverse ideas when coming up with it. Since then, architecture has evolved gradually over the time into the complex forms of architectural styles that we have nowadays. This essay will argumentatively discuss the modern architecture and relate it to traditional practices on the basis of, if it is still a reflection of the old traditional practices or not. And explain whether one can create an idea that does not reflect anything and finally explain examples of old and modern architectural designs while considering Le Corbusier influence on architecture. The world of architecture is very quiet dynamic, this fact facilitated innovations in the area of construction, to be specific on individual buildings. At the moment you cannot compare building that was erected back in 17th 18th, for example, the ancient Roman architecture of 1st century AD. With the massive architectural designs in the 21st century a good example being the skyscrapers of America and China. The bitter truth or rather the sweeter truth is that modern architectures have forgone the ancient art of making buildings. Thats why there has been a rather constant change of house designs and other buildings. This rejection and migration from designing buildings with the reflection of traditional thematic designs can be attributed to the wake of the 20th century and at the apex of the 19th century. During this particular time, there were massive and numerous revolutions in the following fields; building materials, technology, and Engineering (Robertson, 1969). The revolutions were spearheaded by various reasons, the aspiration to break off, from traditional designs which were felt awkward, very common and the longing for a purely functional design. The revolution of materials, came in this way, first, the use of cast iron was put in place during construction. This is basically the use of fabricated iron to build structures like bridges that have been built in whole or in part. A good example of this design is the US Capitol dome like, in Washington DC. Upon invention and realization of the architectural style, it was most notably practiced in Britain. Secondly, there were also noteworthy innovations in technology which aided coming up of new architecture designs. A good example is the ability of some computer programs that auto-generated modern designs upon feeding the computer with raw data of specifications the buildings which you want to come up with. Then surprisingly the computer would process the data and unveil a new and a unique architectural design. Engineering, particularly civil and structural engineering come up with vital innovation like the invention of concrete mixer and more personalized cranes, this eventually fuelled the transition process. After that invention, it was now very easy to come up with very sophisticated architectural designs that had little similarity or no similarity at all to the old architecture. By mid-20th century many new infrastructure designs had taken a new pattern, therefore, giving the old architectural styles like beaux-arts, a bruising battle. In fact, there was no old style that could stand the influence of the newly developed modern architectural designs. Humans are known for their behavior to fancy new things and to conform more to uniqueness. This tendency has aided the transition and setting up of the modern architectural designs and hence rejecting the traditional ones, just like not majority of people can wish to be seen driving an old 404 Volkswagen car when we have the likes of Bugatti, Aston Martins etc. Thats the same feeling being in a rather old designed building when other people are enjoying the newly architecture buildings. This fact made many people embrace the modern styles while ignoring the old practices. There is this famous saying that what goes around comes around basing my argument on the saying, this conclusion can be made that people are somehow looking back and they are kind of turning back and focusing on the traditional architectural designs this has been enabled especially on the 21st century. Most people presume that most modern architectures put more efforts to bring styles that are just appealing to the eye but forget to theme the buildings accordingly. Several people feel old architectural styles were, very cozy and comparatively far away less expensive to build. On contrary, places like the USA are abandoning some of its old building and seeking refuge to the modern ones. Traditional architectural designs tend to be loved by many people in this century, this tendency, surprisingly scares some people who need to be unique and hence they advocate for the new styles. In conclusion, the best way to end this antagonist, the two architectural designs should be incorporated so as to maintain the good aspect that is associated with old buildings and have the new attractive looks that are appealing to the eye. A keen analysis of the second part, on which extent can one break with a tradition without taking a stand from fundamental principles of the discipline the natural law should be put in place in analyzing the context of this statement. It is believed that in life there exists some form of law, which governs all men and that cannot be changed, which is presumed to exist till eternity. The law summons people to the performance of their respective duties and in most case restrains you from doing what is deemed wrong. The extent by which an individual can break with a tradition without taking a stand from fundamental principles of the discipline may vary significantly, but on the long run, it will remain constant as a matter of fact the extent is well defined by time. For instance, if we base the argument on the architectural transition it is very clear that modern architectural styles took their own way back in the 19th century and achieved a lot of significance over that time, but as of now, they are going back to the foundations, the fundamental guidelines of architecture. This aspect is governed by the law of nature. Coming up with an idea deduced from the persons cognitive thinking can be right under very limited conditions. By limited conditions I mean, its almost impractical within normal human precepts. This can be deemed so because, even the great inventors who came up with the most exciting inventions, they made them after a keen observation of a certain behavior, basically an idea based on a particular behavioral change. For instance, the Wright brothers who invented the airplane had deducted the idea from seeing birds fly freely. To conclude it is not possible, to just come up with an idea out of vain. As it was said earlier ancient architecture, traces its origin from many years ago. The ancient architecture was limited to two main functions which included, consolidation of security and power, and then to please God. The following is the analysis of some traditional architecture; Egyptian architecture Great civilization in the Mediterranean region first occurred in Egypt. Their architecture was referred to, Egyptian architecture and was inspired by their way of preserving the dead. This lead to coming up with pyramid-like structures where royal family members were buried upon death. For example, there was one great architect, the pyramid of Khufu which is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the World. They later constructed many palaces at around 1530 BCE. The building was painted with hieroglyphics and other symbolic animals. (Robertson, 1969) Sumerian architecture At around (c.3200-323 BCE), Sumerian civilization was putting efforts together to come up with their own style of architecture which they later referred to as, the ziggurat. The ziggurat resembled the pyramid style of Egypt but theirs were not meant for tombs. The main aim of the ziggurat was to bring the people together and take them closer to godliness. This was at around (c.1500-612 BCE) Minoan Architecture Another group of early individuals whore practiced architecture were the Minoans, which was the first European art of classical Antiquity to be created based on island Crete. They used a mixture of stone bricks and mad to build sumptuous palaces including doomed chambers for burial purposes. The Minoans decorated their buildings with fresco paintings and murals. Their architecture was later destroyed by an earthquake. (Hitchcock, 2000) Greek Architecture. The Greeks were one of the best architectures, their architecture is therefore divided into three basic eras; Hellenistic period, classical and archaic period. The onset of architecture commenced at around 600 BCE after being inspired by Egyptians. They came up the following, buildings, temples, theaters, sports stadiums, and municipal structures. Their architectural method was the Greek architecture. This was simply, normal post lintel constructing techniques. The Greeks built houses with a typical rectangular base like. The buildings were famously decked with a huge of Greek sculpture. The Greek architectures had some notable principles that enhanced their architecture, first, they had specific orders that included Corinthian, Ionic, and, Doric. Doric was mainly practiced at Greeces mainland. Ionic was applied in Ionia particularly the coastal region of turkey. Corinthian came later, it represented an improvement of Ionia. The notable difference between the styles was only the base ratio height. Roman Architecture. Romans had a hint of engineering, military matters, and construction. They usually borrowed some of the art of architecture from other states including Greeks whom they felt they were their superiors. (Anderson, 1997) The need for architecture was to impress and cater for the rapidly growing population. Romans succeeded in coming up with very consistent drainage systems. Eventually, they ended up building a variety of buildings including roads. Several other states also had their styles of architecture, like the Romans, Byzantine, and Gothic among others. After the ancient architecture, there come Renaissance-style architecture at around 1400-1620. The occurrence was facilitated by the commercial prosperity that the states had gained. During this duration there broke out continuous building. For instance, the Catholic was almost bankrupted by popes who were who were funding fine buildings. According to (Watkin, 2005) several schools of thoughts have led to establishment of various types of modern architecture which include; Guggenheim Museum. This was the work of a Frank Lloyd Wright who adhered to a philosophy of organic architecture. He tried to work in harmony with humanity and the environment. Lloyd designed several other structures like the falling water Residence. The Chicago marina apartments They were designed by Bertrand Goldberg back in 1959. The buildings have got a completely modern look, they are incorporated into modern facilities which have no reflection on traditional architectural designs. The Geisel library in California It was built in 1968 and was built for two years, is a good representation of modern architecture. The architectural design was William Pereiras work which consists of multiple cantilevering levels that protrude and glistens with their smooth teeth like the wall sized windows. The Seagram building in New York. This building was a pure representation of modern architecture. Its functionality, simplicity, and outlook portrayed modernism. Modern architecture is manifested in so many types, styles, and themes which ranges from skyscraping boxes of New York to the deemed futuristic saucer shapes of L.A including the settle. (Watkin, 2005) A keen look at Le Corbusier architectural works, we find very many aspects which he incorporated from the traditional architecture to come up with exciting architectural styles. Initially, he made some pivotal architectural discoveries which have influenced the modern architecture in various ways (Le, Goodman, 2007). Le Corbusier observed the importance of the geometric forms and the use of landscapes as an architectural tool. This logic has inspired so many modern designs of architecture, for instance falling water residence by Frank Lloyd borrowed this aspect very much, whereby the background landscape gives the architecture design a good view. Le Corbusier also made some observation in on the difference between large collective spaces and classified spaces. This remark formed the basis for designing most inhabited houses up to date. Finally, he deduced the classical proportion via Renaissance architecture. This has had vast influential effects. He envisioned the concept of prefabricated houses, a good example is the Maison Citron which showed characteristics by which architects would later refer to a modern architect. In the 1930s, he reformulated his urbanism theories, where he adopted building of houses with respect to the family size. This is influential in such that, it economizes on the floor size. Modern architects have borrowed on this aspect very much. (Le, Cohen, Goodman, 2007) In conclusion, architecture is a vital aspect that affects and influences the way of life of all humanity. Since it has been in place since time immemorial its application should be based on clearly defined ideals. there should be intensive research on the old architectural design which should enable harmonized incorporation of desirable aspects from the old designs with the presumed good aspects of the modern architectural designs, so as to come up with a distinct architectural design that is neither ancient nor modern but one with desirable aspects all through, and that can be loved by everyone. References Anderson, J. C. (1997). Roman architecture and society. Johns Hopkins University Press. Barletta, B. A. (1990). An Ionian Sea Style in Archaic Doric Architecture. American Journal of Archaeology, 45-72. Benevolo, L. (1977). History of modern architecture (Vol. 2). Mit Press. De Vattel, E., Chitty, J. (1835). The law of nations: or, Principles of the law of nature, applied to the conduct and affairs of nations and sovereigns. PH Nicklin T. Johnson. Frampton, K., Futagawa, Y. (1983). Modern architecture. ADA Edita. Harvey, D. (1989). Postmodernity (pp. 201-39). London: Basil Blackwell Publishing. Hitchcock, L. A. (2000). Minoan architecture. Hofmeyr, S. A., Forrest, S. (2006). Architecture for an artificial immune system. Architecture, 8(4). Janoukovec, J., Liu, S. L., Martone, P. T., Carr? ©, W., Leblanc, C., Coll? ©n, J., Keeling, P. J. (2013). Evolution of red algal plastid genomes: ancient architectures, introns, horizontal gene transfer, and taxonomic utility of p lastid markers. PLoS One, 8(3), e59001. Kumar, S., Jantsch, A., Soininen, J. P., Forsell, M., Millberg, M., Oberg, J., Hemani, A. (2002). A network on chip architecture and design methodology. In VLSI, 2002. Proceedings. IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on(pp. 117-124). IEEE. Le, C., Cohen, J.-L., Goodman, J. (2007). Toward an architecture. Los Angeles, Calif: Getty Research Institute. Robertson, D. S. (1969). Greek and Roman architecture. Cambridge University Press. Shaw, J. W., Universit? di Catania. Centro di archeologia cretese. (2009). Minoan architecture: materials and techniques. Bottega dErasmo. Smith, W. S., Simpson, W. K. (1998). The art and architecture of ancient Egypt (Vol. 14). Yale University Press. Watkin, D. (2005). A history of western architecture. Laurence King Publishing.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Sonnets By Billy Collins The Antihero Of Sonnet

In 2010 Billy Collins writes Sonnet, a piece of literary work I consider to be the antihero of sonnets. Collins ironically follows neither the constructs of a Shakespearean nor Petrarchan Sonnet throughout. He also creatively breathes new life into a strict art form while rejecting the historical rules a sonnet must follow in this work. Upon further review of Sonnet, it becomes clear that this deliberate rule breaking is a skilled nod side-step to historic norms and a promotion of a new age of creativity in the making of a sonnet. The two overarching sonnet forms that serve as the backbone of the majority of other sonnets in existence are the Petrarchan and the Shakespearean forms. A more obscure but noteworthy sonnet form is the†¦show more content†¦Stylistically Sonnet shares very few similarities to the two major forms of sonnets. It contains an octave and a sestet as the Petrarchan sonnet does as well. Beyond this sole equivalence, Sonnet takes a sharp right turn and bo asts its uniqueness. Rhythmically there are only three lines in Sonnet that show regular iambics. The lines are â€Å"then only ten more left like rows of beans† / â€Å"and rhymes positioned at the ends of lines† / â€Å"blow out the lights, and come at last to bed† (Spacey). There are no other noticeable rhyme schemes at play. The entire sonnet is essentially casual-toned free verse. Another deliberate breakaway from the typical conventions of a sonnet are the multiple enjambments found between lines two and ten. We also see literary devices at play like anaphoras in lines: six, seven, eleven and twelve. Additionally, there is some alliteration in line three, six, and nine. Now that I have touched on the stylistic similarity and differences, I’m going to discuss the tone of Sonnet. Generally, some aspect of a poem will clue the reader into whether the speaker is separate entity from the author. However, in Sonnet, we can only assume. Judging by the opin ionated content and strong tone I believe it is safe to deduce the speaker is Collins himself. In the beginning of his sonnet, Collins’ tone is sarcastic,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The University Of Mississippi State University Essay

Mississippi State University Mississippi State University was founded in the 1870’s as a land-grant college. Today, the university is comprised of eight different colleges that offer over 160 degrees. These include many master and doctoral degree programs. Some of the most popular programs include nursing, business, counseling and psychology. Over 70 percent of students are Mississippi residents. Every year, over 20,000 students attend the university. The six-year graduation rate is around 60 percent and the annual retention rate is around 80 percent. The Shackouls Honors College helps over 1,300 academically impressive students take small, exclusive classes. There are around 1,200 faculty members and a total of 4,300 staff. The student to faculty ratio is 20 to one. The main campus has over 730 buildings spread over 4,200 acres. The main campus library boasts over two million volumes. Alumni include Josh Grisham, popular writer of thriller novels, William Faulkner, Nobel laureate author, and James Meredi th, who was a leader in the American civil rights movement. Mississippi State University Accreditation Details - Southern Association of Colleges and Schools’ Commission on Colleges. -Psychology programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Mississippi State University Application Requirements Admission to Mississippi State University is only granted to highShow MoreRelatedMississippi Development Authority Of The Nissan Project1698 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction In October 2000, Mississippi Development Authority contracted the Institute of Higher Learning to conduct an impact study for the Nissan Project. 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Architecture for Innovation at London Aquatic- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theArchitecture for Innovation at London Aquatic Centre. Answer: The historical significance of London Aquatic Centre The London Aquatic Centre is referred to an indoor facility which is consists of two fifty meter swimming pools and a 25-meter diving pool. The mentioned aquatic centre is located in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London. In the year 2012, the London Aquatic Park was the centre of attraction and excitement during the London Olympic and Paralympics game. After the Olympic and Paralympics game was over, the aquatic centre has gone through a lot of transformation. In 2014, the London Aquatic Centre was reopened after vivid transformation. From that day, till now, the venue is open to all. Innovation at London aquatic centre The mentioned aquatic centre was designed by the globally renowned architect Zaha Hadid in the year 2004. The concept of the centre came from moving water. Initially, the spectator wings were not the part of the centre. It was later added to accommodate the spectators during Olympic 2012 (London Aquatic Centre 2018). Now, the total sitting capacity of the centre is 2800. After the completion of the games, 8 external doors and 628 glass panes have been installed in the centre which allows natural light in the pool. Along with that, the venue has been converted into leisure and sports facility after the Olympics and Paralympics game is over. In order to aspire the athletes, two giant video boards and a timing system has been introduced. Reference List: London Aquatic Centre. 2018.History of the London Aquatics Centre. [online] Available at: https://www.londonaquaticscentre.org/about/history [Accessed 15 Apr. 2018].

Monday, April 20, 2020

Juvenile System free essay sample

Something is wrong in society if more and more teenagers commit delinquent crimes. Focusing on what spawns delinquency in juveniles today, parenting is essential. During my visit to family court with fellow classmates I was honored to observe real live cases involving teenagers, and their parents. It was obvious that one main issue in the U. We will write a custom essay sample on Juvenile System or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page S. Juvenile Delinquency system is the lack of family structure. Family and delinquent relationships interconnect, ultimately, resulting to the core of delinquency. The articles â€Å"Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure†, by Anika Doggett, and â€Å"Family Influences on Delinquency, written by David P. Farrington, both attempt to explain the effects of family structure on juvenile delinquents. The least amount of communication and structure provided by family only ensures a closer path to delinquent activities a child will engage in. Eventually, a solution or at least an attempt to solve family structure, and parental influence, will need to be instituted in the U. S. juvenile system. Attending family court was an experience in itself because it will forever be memorable. One case in particular that held significant value to me was the one involving a fourteen year old boy who stabbed a delivery worker in the chest with a knife. As the troubled teen entered the court room, all eyes were focusing on him as court officers began to remove him from handcuffs. This proved prior detainment in a detention facility. He approached his seat slow and slouchy, and sat in between his mother and his lawyer. He shared no words, or looks with either of the two as he continued to be seated. I expected a much more intimate greeting once he united with his mother, but to my surprise, neither of them seems interested in such. The young delinquent glanced around the room as he identified everyone present with his low, angry eyes. His hair was uncombed, and he slouched in his chair as if having no interest in the events about to take place. His face was brutally bruised and beaten from what seemed to be fist fights he had back in the detention facility he came from. As the descriptions of the case continued, it was proven that the victim of the stabbing was an innocent, immigrant man who spoke no English. He is from Mexico, and works to support his family being a delivery boy. The victim is only nineteen years old meaning only four years older than his offender. When the victim was mentioned, the juvenile represented was not remorseful. He showed no signs of sympathy for the victim, or his family. He continued to slouch, and be detached from everyone in the court room. As the judge continued to plead his case, he continued to stare forward with a blank stare. Ultimately, the case was postponed to be decided at a later date. The juvenile’s lawyer mentioned the teenager having a consultation with a psychiatrist. The psychiatrist saw symptoms of an antisocial disorder that the teenager processed. He described the teen as feeling emotionally disconnected and detached from things having sentimental value, which would explain his lack of emotion during the case. In the end, the teen was issued back to the detention facility in which he came from. As the case was dismissed, the boy stood up from the bench and was placed back in handcuffs. Once again, he did not look at his mother, speak to her, or acknowledge her even in the slightest way. Somehow, his mother was able to crack a smile when she looked at him, but somehow, it didn’t seem fulfilling to me. Furthermore, I analyzed the underlying cause of this case; lack of family structure. According to Anika Doggett, in the text â€Å"Juvenile Delinquency, and Family Structure†, â€Å"families are one of the strongest socializing forces in life†. (1) Providing stability, unity, and control, families are essentially the foundation of a person. However, it is clear that family factors predict offending. Some strong predictors are criminal or antisocial parents. Other predictors are large family sizes, poor parental supervision, parental conflict, and disrupted families. Children who are rejected by families, who also grow up in unstable homes with large amounts of conflict, or who are unsupervised most of the time, are at greater risk of becoming delinquent. (Doggett 1) In even more specific terms, positive parenting practices during early years of childhood and adolescence appear to act as safety helmets; simply because they add to the structure and foundation of what a child believes, values, and understands as right from wrong. This exact idea is evident in the case. From what I concurred as I watched the court case, the mother and son relationship was troublesome based on the lack of communication they shared. In the text â€Å"Family Influences on Delinquency†, author David Farrington says â€Å"mother love in infancy and childhood was just as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins for physical health†. (211) It is essential that a child experiences a warm, loving, encouraging, continuous relationship with a mother figure from a very young age. If they experience a maternal detriment, as early as the first five years of life, it will have negative effects on the development of their character. This includes becoming an â€Å"affectionless†, and â€Å"cold† person, also a delinquent. This explains the very distant relationship displayed between the mother and son in court. In addition, the fact that the boy’s father was not present is also an important facet in my observation. Farrington states that it is generally common for the loss or absence of a father, rather than a mother. However, this too impacts the future of the juvenile. Children from broken homes are more likely to offend than ones from â€Å"intact families†. (Farrington 211) To further verify this idea, a study was carried out by researcher, Joan McCord, in which she studied the relationship between homes broken by loss of the biological fathers and boys who later commit serious offenses. She found that the prevalence of offending was high for boys from broken homes without affectionate mothers (62 percent) and for those from unbroken homes characterized by parental conflict (52 percent), irrespective of whether they had affectionate mothers.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre

Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre For more than fifty days, FBI agents were stationed outside Mount Carmel Center, the headquarters of the religious cult called the Branch Davidians.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They were waiting for the groups charismatic leader David Koresh to stand down and order his followers to lay down their arms and surrender to the overwhelming force that has surrounded their compound. But as time breached the deadline set by the FBI, David Koresh and his followers were intent to wait out to be certain that what they are going to do next is in line with prophetic utterances made a few years earlier. They were willing to wait for divine instructions but the federal government and the FBI who did not understand the worldview of the Branch Davidians and therefore they could not wait any longer and they believed that they were justified to use force. If only they knew the aftermath of the assault they would have made a different decision. Background A historical background is needed to at least make sense of the numerous and sometimes conflicting accounts of what really happened in the aftermath of the final attack on Mount Carmel center in April 19, 1993.[1] It has to be pointed out that this group did not come out of nowhere; in fact, the origin of the Branch Davidians can help explain why Koresh was able to hold sway over a group of people and ultimately led many of them to their death. This group came from a splinter sect that broke away from a Christian denomination known all over the world as the Seventh-Day Adventist Church (SDA).[2] The SDA is known for â€Å"their belief in the imminent return of Jesus Christ to earth, for their special vegetarian dietary restrictions and for their retention of Saturday as their Sabbath.†[3] Those who are aware of the practices of the SDA can ascertain that the Branch Davidians came from the SDA. This does not mean that the SDA is responsible for what happened at Waco but at least it provides a backdrop that will help understand how and why the splinter group used some of the ideas and doctrines they had at SDA and shaped it into their own. Nevertheless, it can also be said that these two groups were linked by: â€Å"†¦historical roots, the origins of their members, their name, their identity, and their apocalyptic preoccupations, idiom, and paranoias.†[4] Once again it must be reiterated that the SDA is not responsible for creating the Waco debacle and yet it is also clear that David Koresh learned much from them, especially when it comes to their strong interests with regards to apocalyptic events.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The breakaway sect was founded by a man named Victor Houteff who was an SDA member since 1919. But after more or less ten years of membership Houteff began to express his disappointment with the errors he found in the doctrines of SDA and so he wrote a book entitled The Shepherds Rod in 1930.[5] But more than that Houteff believed that he was a messenger sent by God and in 1935 he founded the Mount Carmel center, the same facility that would figure prominently in news headlines fifty years later. Houteff called his group the Davidian Sevent-Day Adventist and after World War II he began to recruit members outside the United States. But in 1955 he died and soon after his wife took over the vacant leadership position and she made a prophecy that the world will end on April 22, 1959. When the supposedly dreadful day came and nothing happened many members began to desert the group. The organization almost disintegrated due to the failure of the prophecy but a man named Benjamin Roden assumed control of the group and he renamed it the General Association of Davidian Seventh-D ay Adventists.[6] After his death his wife Lois and son George took over. The year 1981 was a significant year for the group because during this time a man named Vernon Howell joined the group; he was 21 years old and he became the groups handyman.[7] Three years later Vernon Howell married the daughter of a prominent member of the community, her name was Rachel Jones and a power struggle ensued between George Roden and Howell.[8] But Vernon Howell came out on top and in 1985 he spearheaded a drive to recruit members abroad.[9] The strategy that he used to recruit was interesting because he targeted former SDA members who were disgruntled with the SDA.[10] Nevertheless, Howell achieved success in this regard especially when he went to the United Kingdom. He was able to convince a number of British citizens to come and join him. In the aftermath of the final raid it was discovered that thirty-three out of the eighty two followers who died at Waco, Texas were British.[11] The recruitm ent plan was not only limited to England but was also aimed at Canada and Australia, after a successful round of recruitment the membership of the Branch Davidians can be said to be multi-racial ad multi-ethnic of whom 45 were black.[12] It was also during this time that Vernon Howell decided to change his name so that he will be known henceforth as David Koresh. He had his name legally changed and submitted a court document that explains that the purpose for dong so was â€Å"for publicity and business purposes.†[13]Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas Massacre specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The group was know known as the Students of the Seven Seals and correctly interpreted as students of the scroll protected by the seven seals.[14] The name Branch Davidians was not an official name that the group adopted but it was what the Waco Tribune-Herald used extensively t o refer to them.[15] Aside from going to different countries to look for new members Koresh also traveled to the land of Israel in 1985 and this experience added another dimension to the group. According to some experts there is a phenomenon called the Jerusalem Syndrome that sometimes develops after a pilgrimage in the holy city.[16] A year after his visit, Koresh began to refer to himself as the â€Å"Sinful Messiah.†[17] It is easy to generalize the whole group based on the thought pattern, activities, achievements and the declarations made by their leader. From an outsider’s point of view Koresh has no value as far as the normal standard of what constitutes a productive citizen is concern. He has no real job, he was no entrepreneur and he was not a professional. Thus, it is easy to conclude that his members came from the same mould. As one reporter had insinuated during the crisis and wrote the following: Cults such as the Branch Davidians attracted the lonely, the lost, the unloved and the naà ¯ve. Their members came from all over but had at least one thing in common: they were alienated from modern society and were searching for a replacement. Many were society’s losers with nowhere else to go. Others sought spiritual salvation and believed they would discover it by joining a cult. A few, like George Roden, were simply mad.[18] This sweeping statement cannot be used to describe every member of the Branch Davidians. There are those whom one can consider to be of good standing in the community and men of great achievement, for example Wayne Martin, one of the followers of Koresh was a Harvard-trained lawyer while Steve Schneider the group’s spokesperson had a master’s degree from the University of Hawaii and Livingstone Fagan had a degree from the Manchester Metropolitan University and at the same time a trained Seventh-day Adventist pastor.[19] Understanding Davidian Theology No one outside the Branch Davidian cult can clearly explain what David Koresh was trying to say – his prophecies as well as his declarations. He clearly had his own system of interpretation. Nevertheless, it is important to try to understand what he said in order to determine if FBI and the ATF were justified in storming the gates so to speak that resulted not only in the death of Koresh but dozens of members including women and children. The type of Biblical study that Koresh seem to be passionate about is referred to as apocalyptic. In the last few years of his life Koresh was obsessed with the Book of Revelation the last book of the Christian bible and it was believed to be written by the Apostle John.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this book there is an important section that deals with a scroll or book with seven seals and the person who can break the seal is the one who will be able to read and understand these books and the fact that they are sealed means it is of utmost importance. However, the bible says that no one was able to break the seal.[20] As one reads this particular passage in the Book of Revelation one can feel a sense of urgency and suspense not knowing what will happen next. But this feeling quickly passes because in just a few verses the One who is able to break the seal was revealed and he is none other than the Lamb.[21] In the case of the members of the Davidian cult there is no need to ask who is the Lamb and there is no need to experience an acute sense of anticipation for his coming because they knew who the Lamb is and who can open the seal. He is not a spiritual being but made of flesh. He is human and he is none other than their beloved leader – David Koresh.[22] But Chris tians all over the world will sneer at this remark because they will also argue that the Lamb is none other than Christ. The Old Testament of the Christian Bible repeatedly discussed the need to offer a sacrificial lamb for the sins of the people. This was ingrained into mainstream culture after the release of movies like the Ten Commandments wherein one can see the blood of the lamb painted on doorposts and the consumption of a roasted lamb as a means to preserve the Hebrew slaves from impending doom. This act and this symbolism were easily understood as a sacrifice that is acceptable to God. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible the prophet John the Baptist pointed to Jesus and said that he is the lamb of God that will take away the sin of the world.[23] In other numerous instances in the New Testament one can also the reference to Jesus Christ as the lamb of God.[24] It is therefore puzzling why Koresh would claim to be the Lamb of God. But the moment he was convinced that he is indeed the One who can break the seals as mentioned in the Book of Revelations and the moment that he had followers who believed in what he said then the sky was the limit in terms of what he thinks can be done through his actions. The following is an excerpt that Koresh gave in an interview with a reporter from Time magazine and he made the following assertions: I offer to you my wisdom, I offer to you my sealed secrets. How dare you turn away? My invitations of mercy †¦ Who are you fighting against? The law is mine, the truth is mine †¦ I am your God and you will bow under my feet †¦ I am your life and your death. I am the Spirit of the prophets and the author of their testimonies. Look and see, you folls, you will not proceed much further. Do you think you have power to stop my will? †¦ My seven thunders are to be revealed †¦ Do you want me to laugh at your pending torments? Do you want me to pull the heavens back and show you my anger? †¦ Fear me, for I have you in my snare †¦ I forewarn you, the Lake Waco area of Old Mount Carmel will be terribly shaken. The waters of the lake will be emptied through the broken dam.[25] Even the most objective assessment of Koresh’ words will lead to the conclusion that this man needed help because he believed that he is equal to God. At the same time he needed to check himself into a mental facility because he does not only deluded into thinking that he is God but he also believes that he has the power to destroy the Lake Waco Area referring to the water that comes from a nearby dam and therefore hinting at the destruction of this facility. It is not only the message of doom that forced the federal government and the people surrounding the siege to act quickly, without a doubt their actions were influenced by how the Waco Tribune-Herald portrayed Koresh as the archetypal cult leader, â€Å"a man whose hold over his followers was complete, to the point of his being able, if he so wised, to order them to commit suicide† and therefore the need to stop this madmen from leading people to their untimely deaths.[26] For those who stand in the foundation laid by the U.S. Constitution, specifically the First Amendment there is nothing wrong with what Koresh was babbling about. Even if Koresh believed himself to be the devil the federal government cannot and should not curtain his freedom to express himself and the kind of religion that he will adhere to. It is therefore important to stress that the federal government agents who stormed Mount Carmel Center did not breached the facility because they were not in agreement with the Branch Davidians’ rhetoric but they did so on the other grounds. It is therefore crucial to take note of the fact that the agents wanted to arrest Koresh because of the legality of some of his actions. The First Attempt On February 28, 1993 a seventy-six strong and heavily armed ATF agents were in an eighty vehicle convoy going to Mount Carmel center just outside Waco, Texas.[27] For the past several months ATF acted on a tip that the Branch Davidians were purchasing illegal firearms materials and this was allegedly for the purpose of converting AR-15 semiautomatic rifles into machine guns.[28] This was not allowed according to the law because the Branch Davidians were supposed to report this to the government and they had to pay the required fees and since they did not, ATF was obliged to get them and force them to pay for their offenses. If only they knew what was in store for them the ATF may have reconsidered their decision to play hardball with the Branch Davidians. The ATF agents carried with them a search and arrest warrant.[29] They also brought with them two cattle trailers pulled by pickup trucks and these two were filled with ATF assault forces and these were driven quickly in front of the headquarters of the Branch Davidians to unload its cargo of lethal force while at the same time two b lack hawk helicopters came out of nowhere possibly as a means to intimidate the inhabitants to surrender to the authorities.[30] All of these can be ascertained but what soon followed was disputed by both sides.[31] According to David Koresh he shouted at the incoming ATF agents that there were women and children inside the building and so he told them to get back for he was ready to negotiate but he added that the ATF agents[32] replied with burst of gunfire. His assertion was strengthened by a 911 call asking the authorities to stop the violence. The ATF agents on the other hand said that they identified themselves and shouted to Koresh that they had a warrant but all of a sudden they were cut off by a hail of bullets and the reason why they had to fire back.[33] It was a bloody initial attack. When the sound of crackling gunfire was over in the said initial attack four federal law enforcement agents were killed by the Branch Davidians.[34] Six Branch Davidians members were killed by the agents.[35] In just a matter of hours the whole thing was transferred to the hands of the FBI.[36] There were negotiations made and Koresh released ten children. The Media The Waco Tribune-Herald played an important role in the debacle because before the first raid by the Bureau of Alcohol and Tobacco and Firearms the Waco Tribune-Herald already had an idea that such an assault will be made and who was the target of the raid. As a result on February 27 a day before the ATF tried to serve the warrant to search and seized evidence of illegal activities, the Waco Tribune-Herald released a report entitled The Sinful Messiah.[37] In the said report the Branch Davidian was reduced to nothing but a scary cult where the leader is an expert in brainwashing and has managed to control the members to follow him blindly. In other words the Waco Tribune-Herald had a hand in demonizing the obscure sect and propelled them to world prominence. Aside from that the Waco Tribune-Herald released details that painted an image of David Koresh as a sex pervert who seemed to have his own harem – a collection of wives who were still married to his followers and if this was not enough according to the report Koresh had the propensity to have sexual intercourse with girls as young as 12 years old.[38] This means that if proven true Koresh is not only stockpiling illegal firearms but also guilty of statutory rape. However, the evidence is still sketchy with regards to this part of the Branch Davidians’ story. It can also be said that the Waco Tribune-Herald helped create a scenario that made it extremely difficult for the FBI and ATF agents to sit idly while Koresh continued with his propaganda regarding his belief that he is the messiah and that the end of the world is near. This is because after the initial attack CNN broadcasted all over the world images of dead ATF agents being retrieved while the agents of the federal government seemed in retreat. For example th ere were footages and images were played over and over again on TV screens around the globe.[39] It could have been a simple hostage negotiations but it is no longer possible to simply talk to David Koresh and his men because now they have to answer to the deaths of the agents in the first raid. On the other hand the Branch Davidians were an obscure sect before this incident and after their headquarters was seen on TV the group achieved a level of notoriety that made their name synonymous to religious fanaticism while at the same time earned sympathies from those who see the government as an intrusive entity that will try to bend the law with regards to the First Amendment. The Government The Federal Government was drawn into the destructive saga because of the belief that the government is supposed to enforce rules but it turned out that the government was not helping the situation. It was the height of irony that the Federal Government will act as fire accelerant to the flame beca use their presence convinced Branch Davidians that biblical prophecies was about to come to pass. The more that the FBI tried to end the siege by force the more that they gave ammunition to David Koresh without knowing it. The government had a narrow perspective with regards to the Branch Davidian problem. For the FBI negotiators Koresh and his men could not talk about anything of substance and so their frustration increases every passing day. The Branch Davidians on other hand went deeper into their paranoia that what they feared was about to come to pass. On the other side of the fence the FBI agents were also convinced that this paramilitary group is just doing everything in their power to elude capture and therefore the government has to act quickly. They approach the situation from a legal point of view and by being legalistic about it they could not figure out anything except to use their hostage and rescue team and other specialists to end the crisis using tools of warfare an d other tactics. The FBI negotiators did their part by connecting a private line between them and the Mount Carmel Center and through this line they were able to talk to Koresh or his spokesperson a man named Schneider.[40] In one report submitted to the Department of Justice authorities said that Koresh would often go into a two or three hour monologue.[41] This means that it was increasingly difficult for the FBI negotiators to influence Koresh to think about surrender. Hostage/Barricade After the immense blunder of the initial attack the Federal Bureau of Investigation were called to take over and they did. The firs thing that they had to do was to assess the situation and then formulate the right strategy to end the crisis. One of the first things that they had to do was to label the problem correctly and it has to be pointed out that in this case the FBI could not find the exact terminology to indicate what they are trying to deal with and therefore they came up with an awkward name for it and they said that it is a kind of a hostage situation.[42] However, the people inside the building could not be said to have been taken against their will. The FBI had to reassess their initial description of the situation and so someone said that it is a hybrid between a barricade and a hostage situation. If it is a barricade then the agents had no choice but to wait it out until the group surrenders out of exhaustion there would be no justification for storming in. But if it is a hostage situation and the agents feel that the hostage taker is going to harm the lives of the people then they have all the reasons needed to enter in using force. The Aftermath It was time for the second raid and this time around agents from the federal government made sure that all bases were covered. Armored vehicles punched holes into the walls and gas canisters were thrown inside the building and in the aftermath this is what can be seen: â€Å"†¦the compound was burnt to the gro und and at least 75 sect members, including Koresh and 25 children under 15 years of age were killed.†[43] The bloody end was once again broadcasted to the whole world and while there was a strong condemnation against a religious cult leader who allegedly abused his members, the result of the attack and the death of the children earned them sympathy. It did not take long before the word wanted to know why if the federal government did everything in its power to resolve the crisis without having to destroy the lives of the innocents. The images of the burning building and the death of the children created a wave of protest from those who suddenly saw the contrast between the story that they heard on the news and the actual event. Surely the group can be considered as communal religious sect that may have subscribed to bizarre practices and yet there is no reason why their lives must end this way. The red flames covered the building and no one knows what to do with the children trapped inside. This is perhaps the reason why the U.S. Constitution and the founders of this nation inserted the First Amendment; they must have known that someday people will be killed for their beliefs. The First Amendment The debacle at Waco presented to the world a unique case where religious freedom and the right to bear arms converged in the life of one group the Branch Davidians. It was a curious case because most of the time the world has to deal with religious freedom, the right to worship and the right to choose ones religion without interference from the government. However, there is an added element because this group did not only struggle for religious expression like the Old Order Amish or the Mennonites but this group also tried to make a point about their right to bear arms. From another perspective one can see that the Branch Davidians wanted to be left alone to pursue what they believe is the only way to lead their lives. If other religions are allowed to do so th en why is it that the federal government had a different outlook when it came to David Koresh and his followers? It can be said that the Old Order Amish of Iowa and other similar groups exerclised the same right and no one bothered them.[44] The existence of the Amish people is a celebration of the First Amendment and it is a testament to the power of the Constitution to create a diverse society without its citizens destroying themselves to create a much simpler society. This has been at the forefront of the Branch Davidian fiasco, was the federal government intent on wiping out a religion that would not conform to a more acceptable type of belief system? According to the Religious Studies Professor Rowland A. Sherrill: â€Å"Let’s not beat around the bush: Our first response to people who are religious in ways other than we are is to be irritated.†[45] He added that common views regarding religious people are that they are intolerant; that heaven is for a select few; and that they have a blind adherent to their religion that can be a source of annoyance or dread. The Waco Tribune-Herald, the government, and the people living within that particular community labeled them as a cult and there is no need to expound on the fact that this term carries with it a load of meaning that can surely illicit a negative response. This added to controversial image of the group. Others however contend that the use of the term cult can be easily abused or misused. Political scientists like Michael Barkun contends, however, that the term cult, â€Å"has become virtually meaningless, little more than a label slapped on religious groups regarded as too exotic, marginal or dangerous†, in the same way that English settlers used the label barbarian and applied it to the Native Americans of this country.[46] This is the question when it comes to the Branch Davidians, do they have the right to worship freely and even further, do they have the right to bear arms? I t is clear in the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that an American citizen has the right to own a weapon. The only question is what kind and how many? This is an issue that is not easy to resolve and it is evidenced by the number of books, articles, TV ads and speeches made because of the need to create a common ground – gun rights advocate are asking for more while those who had an aversion for gun toting citizens are asking for greater limits. One of their most popular supporters is actor Charlton Heston who spoke out in their behalf and said: Just about everything I hope is good about me – who I am, what I’ve tried to do – can be traced back to those smoking muskets and the radical declaration of independence by those ragtag rebels. Wearing threadbare coats and marching on bleeding feet, they defeated the finest army in the century, and they gave the world hope. Within them flowed an undertow of personal freedom, a relentless sense of what is right, so irresistibly strong they simply could not resist.[47] The fears of those who cry for gun control is repeatedly justified every year after news of indiscriminate shootings and the deaths of many due to firearms.[48] The Waco, Texas incident was no exception. On the other hand gun rights advocates made clear their own set of fears. It is not only their fear of being mugged and assaulted without the ability to defend themselves but also their fear of the government. There are those who said however, that this right and this talk of freedom from the First Amendment to the Second Amendment have been blown out of proportion. There are those who even contend that these ideals were taken from the militia myth created after the success of the American Revolution.[49] In other words there is no need to form a private army in this day and age but many cling stubbornly to the idea that they must be prepared at all times to defend themselves not only against intruders but a powerful g overnment. Groups like the Branch Davidians may also offer a counter-argument that their purchase of weapons is justified by the fact that the government has its standing army known as the National Guard. They may even argue that it is their right as an American citizen to be armed in order that no entity foreign or domestic can overwhelm them and take their freedom away from them. The need to bear arms was strengthened by the belief that a time will come that the federal government will try to limit the freedom of the people. The right to bear arms is also justified by the belief that only an armed populace can defend the U.S. Constitution against those who would try to tamper with it to serve their personal purposes. A general understanding of why private arms keeping should be allowed was expounded in the following argument: â€Å"†¦to deter tyranny and, if necessary, to overthrow it and restore the Constitution.†[50] Those who support this view will also add that a f ederal government â€Å"could become tyrannical† and it is the duty of the armed people to deal with the problem by being able to stage a revolt.[51] There is logic to the arguments made by gun rights advocate but in the case of the Branch Davidians and the Waco, Texas incident there is more to the issue other than the right to bear arms.[52] It is a confluence of the First Amendment and the Second Amendment rights. The difficulty in separating the two proved futile. And after the event it is easy for many people to judge what happened to the Branch Davidians from either of two perspectives: one will say that it is a violation of their right to free speech and religious worship while others will say that the government came in because of the weapons that they stockpiled within the Mount Carmel Center. Resolving the Crisis The negotiators worked diligently to establish rapport with Koresh but it was not an easy task, in fact it was an impossible task. The FBI asked the help of experts, even those who are familiar with biblical prophecy. There were also third parties who tried to get through Koresh. One of them is the station manager of a radio station based in Dallas who urged Koresh to surrender and ask for medical help.[53] The station manager also tried to convince the cult leader to release more children but instead of a favorable response Koresh started what authorities would later call as a mad rambling from a psycho and he would talk and talk about his religious views and he was oblivious to the fact that the station manager and his audience find his rhetoric unintelligible. Nevertheless, it was easy to understand that patience is needed and at first the government was willing to wait, willing to diffuse the situation and willing to resolve the crisis without using violence. But after weeks of doing nothing except to observe and listen to a boring monologue they were ready to consider anything new. It was discovered later that weeks before the fin al attack leaders in both Washington, D.C. and the FBI were increasingly frustrated over the delaying tactics of Koresh and his men. This was exacerbated by the fact that Koresh promised to stand down after March 2 but when the window of time given for his possible surrender began to close, the FBI was considering more drastic actions. On March 15, 1993 FBI agents began to draw up a new strategy to finally defeat Koresh. It was called a â€Å"modified negotiations strategy† and this was a new directive to the negotiators to be firm and to make Koresh surrender.[54] This also meant that they would no longer listen to what Koresh had to say, from that time forward the Branch Davidians had to show that they are willing to comply or the FBI will make their lives miserable. By doing so negotiations began to break down. At around the same time the FBI began to use â€Å"stress escalation† and harassment techniques.[55] Electricity was temporarily cut-off and then afterwards the FBI ordered that the power must be cut permanently.[56] The FBI were demanding and no longer listening to what Koresh had to say. The FBI would demand that Koresh should release more people and when he refused to comply they would retaliate with punitive measures.[57] Such as the use of searchlights during the night in the obvious attempt to keep the people inside the building from getting any sleep. Loud music were played during the night as loudspeakers continued to blare out irritating sounds.[58] However, these actions prompted a negative response. Instead of forcing Koresh and the people to leave the building they were pushing them deeper into their shell because now they believed that the government is evil and it only seeks their destruction. It can be argued that there could have been a better way to end the siege or hostage situation. The federal government and the FBI should have made a correct assessment of the situation by first determining correctly that there are t wo sides of the issues. First, the government has the right to regulate the use of weapons. It does not matter what others will say with regards to the ownership of guns and other high-powered weapons because it is clear that many had suffered from the misuse of weapons and therefore it is just proper for the government to enforce the law. Secondly, the federal government should have considered that this is a multi-part problem and that the Branch Davidians were not only stockpiling weapons but they were convinced that they are part of a communal religious group that believed in the imminent fulfillment of biblical prophecies. This should not be taken against them for this is what they believed. But more importantly the FBI should have realized that their presence and the failed entry of the ATF agents weeks beforehand was the signal for the Branch Davidians that the end of the world is near and that they were not seen as law enforcement agents but as enemies in the spiritual contex t. If this was insight of the federal government then they would have reconsidered their plan to use deadly force. Conclusion David Koresh and the Branch Davidians were arguably the victim of the media hype specifically the report written by the Waco Tribune-Herald. This report forced people to see them in a very negative light and put pressure on the government as well as the law enforcement agencies to bring David Koresh and his men to justice. In the process no one placed an emphasis on their right to worship in the way and form that they want to worship. Due to negative information that were broadcasted to outsiders and people who had no clear idea of what the Branch Davidians was all about the group was demonized. As a result there was an urgency to end the crisis by force. This is the reason why so many people were killed including women and children. If the negative reports did not influence the law enforcement agents who were responsible for resolving the crisis using non-le thal force then the story could have ended differently and the lives of the people would have been spared. Bibliography Carter, Gregg Lee. Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture  And the Law. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Crothers, Lane. Rage on the Right: The American Militia Movement from Ruby Ridge to  Homeland Security. Maryland: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2003. Edwards, Linda. A Brief Guide to Beliefs: Ideas, Theologies, Mysteries, and Movements. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001. Gibbs, Nancy, Michael Riley, Richard Woddbury. â€Å"The Branch Davidians: Oh, My God,They’re Killing Themselves.† Time Magazine Archives. Web. Kerstetter, Todd. God’s Country, Uncle Sam’s Land: Faith and Conflict in the American West. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2006. Kerstetter, Todd. â€Å"That’s Just the American Way: The Branch Davidian Tragedy and Western Religious History.† T he Western Historical Quarterly 35(2004): 453-471. Lawson, Ronald. â€Å"Seventh-Day Adventist Responses to Branch Davidian Notoriety: Patterns of Diversity within a Sect Reducing Tension with Society.† Journal for the Scientific Study  of Religion. 34(1995): 323-341. Morris, Leon. The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross. Massachusetts: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1984. Murray, Bruce. Religious Liberty in America: The First Amendment in Historical and  Contemporary Perspective. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008. Newport, Kenneth. The Branch Davidians of Waco: The History and Beliefs of an Apocalyptic  Sect. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Reavis, Dick. The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1995. Robinson, Bruce. â€Å"Branch Davidians: History, Beliefs, and Practices.† Religious Tolerance: Ontario Consultants on Relgious Tolerance. Web. Schwieder, Elmer Thomas Morain. A Peculiar People: Iowa’s Old Order Amish. Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1975. Tabor, James Eugene Gallagher. Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for the Religious Freedom  in America. California: University of California, 1995. Footnotes Nancy Gibbs, Michael Riley, Richard Woddbury, â€Å"The Branch Davidians: Oh, My God, They’re Killing Themselves,† Time Magazine Archives. Bruce Robinson, â€Å"Branch Davidians: History, Beliefs, and Practices,† Religious Tolerance: Ontario Consultants on Relgious Tolerance. Ibid. Ronald Lawson, â€Å"Seventh-Day Adventist Responses to Branch Davidian Notoriety: Patterns of Diversity within a Sect Reducing Tension with Society,† Journal for the Scientific Study  of Religion. 34(1995): 323. Robinson, p.1 Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Linda Edwards, A Brief Guide to Beliefs: Ideas, Theologies, Mysteries, and Movements, (Louisville, Kentucky: John Knox Press, 2001), 408. Robinson, p.1. Edwards, 408. Robinson, p.1. Ibid. Edwards, 408. Ibid. Ne wport, 4. Ibid. Revelations 5:3. New International Version. Ibid. Dick Reavis, The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation, (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1995), 102. Leon Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, (Massachusetts: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1984), 129. Ibid. Edwards, 407. Kenneth Newport, The Branch Davidians of Waco: The History and Beliefs of an Apocalyptic  Ã‚  Sect, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 2. James Tabor Eugene Gallagher. Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for the Religious Freedom  Ã‚  in America. (California: University of California, 1995), 1. Ibid. Newport, 1. Tabor Gallagher, 1. Ibid., 2. Ibid. Ibid. Todd Kerstetter, â€Å"That’s Just the American Way: The Branch Davidian Tragedy and Western Religious History,† The Western Historical Quarterly 35(2004), 453. Lawson, 323. Newport, 1. Tabor Gallagher, 2. Ibid. Newport, 1. Ibid., 5. Ibid. Tabor Gallagher, 4. Lawson, 323. Elmer Schwieder Thomas Morain, A Peculiar People : Iowa’s Old Order Amish, (Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1975), 37. Bruce Murray, Religious Liberty in America: The First Amendment in Historical and  Ã‚  Contemporary Perspective, (MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008), 24. Kerstetter, Todd. God’s Country, Uncle Sam’s Land: Faith and Conflict in the American West. (Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2006), 134. Lane Crothers, Rage on the Right: The American Militia Movement from Ruby Ridge to  Homeland Security, (MD: Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2003), 34. Gregg Lee Carter, Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture  And the Law, (California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.), 175. Ibid. Carter, 257. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid., 6. Ibid. Ibid.,7. Ibid. Ibid.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Facebook- A curator or an enemy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Facebook- A curator or an enemy - Essay Example The article here is trying to address how Facebook is blocking the works of artists who are projecting it through this social networking website. Nevertheless, Facebook is trying to defend its actions by calling it a ‘mistake’. Many artists from all around the world have experienced the same. They have had their pictures and, in some cases, even their accounts blocked. This article is pointing out a recent victim, The New York University of Art, which lost its rights for uploading any images of their artwork, the reason being the violation of rules and regulations of Facebook. The works included nude images, which is against Facebook policy. The University's authority classed this, an unfair action against art; nevertheless, they raised their voice through a blog, complaining about Facebook's rules and regulations. Thesis Statement Blocking the projects of the artists on the medium where individual individuals have complete freedom to express themselves. Isn’t tha t ironic? Rhetorical Aspects of the article being analyzed Purpose, Genre and Style This article was published in The New York Times. The issue being addressed is the problem faced by an institution of art as their work is being deleted and accounts blocked by Facebook as it contains nudity. However, later, the site officials claimed that it was a mistake on their part and they had no intention, whatsoever, of hurting anyone's feelings. Moreover, they encouraged people who had lost their work to post it again. Drawing nude live models is considered the most effective way to develop the basic draftsmanship skill of an artist. Hence, it is considered to be the most important part of an artist’s work. Using Facebook as a medium, artists share their work with art lovers all around the globe. Nevertheless, Facebook blocking their work became a deterrent for these artists. Artists are more emphasizing towards the blocking of the nude content and have been concerned with the fact th at the Facebook officials must have seen that the nude pictures were actual works of art, yet, they decided to block it. The genre is complaining about the careless behavior of world’s largest social network platforms. Angle of Vision The author of this passage seems to blame Facebook for these actions but, in my opinion, if Facebook has some certain terms and conditions then they are free to apply it on all forms of work. Facebook does not allow photos which attack a person or group or images which depict drug use or contain violence or nudity. If Facebook requires it's users to follow certain rules and regulations, then we are all required to follow them as responsible individuals. If they say that a photo should not ‘contain’ nudity, then nudity in any form should be banned. Some people are of the view that Facebook is assailing artists, this, however, is a misinterpretation as according to Facebook's representative, their investigators only check those images that are flagged/reported and then according to the nature of the report (how many people find that abusing) they remove the content. Therefore, if other users are uncomfortable with that image then there is no way that that content should be kept on the site. For an institution like the New York University of Art, there are other ways of sharing their artwork with people interested in art like their own website or blogs. Secondly, seeing these types of drawings in galleries is one thing and seeing them on Facebook is another. Not everyone visits galleries, neither do they have a rule against nudity but on Facebook they do have rules. Many people, who are interested in art but are against nude forms of art, visit these pages much often. Evidence from the article The academy was at loss as their account was blocked and they

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Risk Management Program Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Risk Management Program - Research Paper Example Risk is the uncertainty surrounding future outcomes and events, and it is an expression of the impact and likelihood of the occurrence of an event, which is regarded to have the potential of influencing the achievement of the objectives of an organization. For every risk, there are two calculations needed, including its probability or likelihood, and the extent of the consequences or impact. Schwartz  (2014) recognizes that in certain organizations, risk management is used in issues that are predetermined as causative of unwanted and adverse consequences. In such firms, risk is understood in terms of the function of probability of the unwanted or adverse event, as well as the magnitude or severity of the event consequences. Effective application of management requires that the organization develops a risk-management culture, which should support the general mission, vision and objectives of the organization. There should be establishment and communication of boundaries and limits in relation to the acceptable risk outcomes and practices (Pà ©rez-gonzà ¡lez & Yun, 2013). Since the management of risks is directed towards the uncertainty associated with future outcomes and events, it is assumed that all exercises for planning incorporate a certain level of risk management. As a manufacturing company, Nike understands that production innovation, through a sustainability lens, is important towards the achievement of the company’s growth vision, which is independent of the constrained resources. In fact, creation and building of a business that acknowledges and accommodates constraints, as well as thriving through them within the natural setting is the sole way through which an organization can realize growth within the modern world, and this would not affect the company’s ability to succeed in the long term. The transition has been evidently challenging for the company as a

Friday, January 31, 2020

How Businessman Rides Out Despite the Extreme Challenges Essay

How Businessman Rides Out Despite the Extreme Challenges - Essay Example It is very interesting to know how these businessmen were able to make it through and ride out despite the extreme challenges that he had to contend with. In addition, these two executives belong to the same family such that they are siblings; hence, it would also be interesting to learn how family relations affect the business as a whole. Me: How did you get into this business? Sir Smith: My father was a farmer. I was the eldest child in the family so I was early exposed to life on the farm. In college, I went to the Colorado State University where I majored in Agricultural Engineering and graduated in 1977. So, I can fairly say that I have a very good background in agricultural stuff. The decision to engage in this kind of business was mostly rooted from self-realization that as a man who grew up in a farm, I am one of those few who really knows what it takes to be successful in agricultural business. Eventually, in 1980, together with my siblings, I put up my own agricultural busi ness that I called Smith AgriPro. AgriPro stands for â€Å"agricultural procurement.† Ms. Ada Smith-Rogers: He and I are poles apart. He is the eldest while I am the youngest child in the family. Aside from the fact that we grew up on the farm, I was never really interested in agricultural stuff. What I am interested in is doing business. Generally, I oversee the overall completion of the operation in all the divisions of the company. So, the biggest highlight of my position, perhaps, would be the opportunity to witness the growth of the company since its birth. I always make the final decision and so my decisions determine where the company would be in several years. As President and CEO, your every move should be a calculated risk. Fortunately, for me, with the help of my subordinates, I was able to clearly evaluate the company’s annual performance since 1980, and through this careful evaluation, I was able to venture in proliferating the company in various locations within the county. Ms. Smith-Rogers: I feel probably the same pressure as he [Sir Smith] feels in running and managing this company. As Executive Vice President, I also assume duties and responsibilities that the president and CEO have. I am responsible for the maximization of the overall operating performance of the company and in the attainment of our company’s financial objectives. I supervise the human resource department, finance department, business development, and of course, communicating with the board of directors. The highlight of my position was probably that time when the company is already making its spot in the agricultural industry, surpassing many giant companies. The company needed more workers so as the Executive Vice President, I had to carry out recruitment strategies that would attract highly talented and intelligent workers from all over the state. Gladly, I was successful at doing that. The company was able to acquire the ideal number of workers for i ts various operations.  

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Julius Caesar Essay -- essays research papers

SUMMARY: Shakespeare's Julius Caesar is the story of the resulting conflicts from the assassination of perpetual dictator and Roman emperor, Julius Caesar. A great friend of Caesar, Mark Antony, comes to the senate to see the dead body of their dictator. He pretends to not be angry at those who took part in the assassination, and asks to speak at his funeral, a request which he is granted. However, after the men leave, he begins a soliloquy in which he suggests that Caesar's spirit will take revenge upon his murderers and invoke a war involving the entire country. Antony begins the revenge of his death by speaking at the funeral about the wrong done to Caesar, the man's generosity to the people, and how Brutus tried to persuade them to believe his justification of the murder. The crowd turns to agreement with Antony and then accuse the conspirators of murder. The accused men flee, eventually leaving the bounds of the city, and the citizens leave to loot and burn the houses of the guilty men. The armies of Brutus and Cassius set up camps near another city and knowing that Antony's soldiers are coming, they decide to march toward the enemy at once. The fighting begins with the confrontation of the two sides, as Cassius' and Brutus' armies arrive. Antony and his partner challenge the assassins to fight, and the bloody battle begins. The armies of the conspirators fall into vulnerability many times, and their side does poorly, losing many men. Cassius hears mistakenly that one...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Business Com

Once I had gone to visit a friend in the next town which is along a major highway and stretched about km. He asked me to a light at the second bus stop In the town. When the bus I took got closer to the town, I Informed the bus conductor where I will alight. He gave a node amidst a loud music from the stereo In the bus. About an hour later, I called the conductor to find out If we had reached the second bus stop. He Immediately asked the driver to stop for me to alight after apologizing to me.He said e never heard the request I made earlier therefore we had passed the second bus stop about half an hour ago. I had to get down at that point and find away to my friend's house. Unfortunately the ‘second bus stop' my friend meant was at the eastern side of the town, which was close to my town. Unfortunately I entered the town through the western side since I was corning from a trip In the western part of the country. This was explain to me by a Taxi driver who drove me for additiona l 2 hours to the right â€Å"Second bus top† to meet my friend who had waited all day.Apart from the loud music from the stereo, the bus was overloaded therefore noise was in the car. After analyzing my experience there are some points I found which could be barrier for healthy communication and analysis of which are needed before coming up with ways to eliminate or minimize them. These barriers may be classified as follows – 1. Environmental Barriers – This is similar to physical noise, and could be in the form of disturbing sounds, an overcrowded bus, poor services and acoustics, all f which may hamper the ability to pay attention to and understand the message.When I made a request to alight, the conductor did not hear me because of the loud noise from the stereo and how congested the bus was. This barrier can be eliminated by bringing down the volume of the stereo in the bus to the tolerable level to facilitate healthy communication between conductor, driver and passengers. Secondly overloading can be avoided in buses to prevent distraction and create a serene atmosphere where one can freely commune with one another. 2.Individual Barriers – A major barrier to interpersonal communication is a tendency to judge, evaluates, approve or disapprove of the views of another person. This happens particularly in situations where we have strong feelings about something. In such cases, we tend to block out the communication and form our own viewpoints. When I Inform my friend about visiting him, he Immediately assumed I will be coming through the eastern entrance of the town. Secondly when the conductor nodded I concluded It was a sign of having had my request to alight.This barrier can be eliminated If we can take objective Instead of subjective stand when communicating with people. We can do this by asking few additional or open-end questions and allow people to express themselves and also listen to them rather than Interrupt their speech or complete sentences for them for example. Feedback can also help to confirm If those we are communicating with actually got our Intended meanings attached to the message. Business Com By bendy Q. L Describe Any Situation In Your Experience Where The Communication Went Wrong.Analyze The Situation By Pointing Out The Type Of Barrier To Communication stretched about km. He asked me to a light at the second bus stop in the town. When the bus I took got closer to the town, I informed the bus conductor where I will alight. He gave a node amidst a loud music from the stereo in the bus. About an hour later, I called the conductor to find out if we had reached the second bus stop. He immediately asked the driver to stop for me to alight after apologizing to me. He said friend's house.Unfortunately the ‘second bus stop' my friend meant was at the own through the western side since I was coming from a trip in the western part of Barriers – A major barrier to interpersonal commun ication is a tendency to Judge, inform my friend about visiting him, he immediately assumed I will be coming concluded it was a sign of having had my request to alight. This barrier can be eliminated if we can take objective instead of subjective stand when communicating allow people to express themselves and also listen to them rather than interrupt confirm if those we are communicating with actually got our intended meanings

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Nelson Mandel The Powerful Activist - 1807 Words

Nelson Mandela: Activist, President, Inspiration The powerful activist for human rights, Nelson Mandela, once stated, â€Å"A good head and a good heart are always a formidable combination.† The young boy from a South African clan has had one dream throughout his entire life: change. If Mandela was still alive today, he would see how his wise words continue to inspire the country of South Africa. Mandela took the burden of change upon him from a young age, and was determined to be the man that causes the change his nation so desperately needs. Nelson Mandela has greatly benefitted modern society by bringing peace to a racially divided country, changing the viewpoints of his people by becoming the first black president of his nation, and by being an activist for human rights around the world. Nelson Mandela was not raised in the typical life of a normal child; he was born into an African Clan where his father is the leader. However, that did not stop him from his dream to better society (â€Å"Mandela†). Nelson Mandela is the son Henry Mandela who is a Chief among of the Madiba Clan. However, he rejected the offer to become the chief of the clan to become a lawyer. He attended South African Native College where he studied law at the university the Witwatersrand; where he took an exam to become a lawyer. Mandela introduced South Africa’s first black law practice with Oliver Tamboo in 1952. Also in that year, Mandela was involved in an important role in launchingShow MoreRelatedA Very Brief Biography of Nelson Mandela1229 Words   |  5 PagesOn July 18th, 1918, the powerful and praiseworthy Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei, South Africa into the royal family of the Xhosa-speaking Thembu tribe. From an early age, Mandela demonstrated his p assion for fighting for the rights of his people. He was greatly inspired by the stories he heard about his ancestors during their times of struggle. It is through determination and dedication that Mandela accomplished many of his goals including an end to apartheid. In fact, Mandela received